The BorderlandsGuadalajara - Soria - Zaragoza
The Borderlands by car or motorbike. The route for survival: raids, sieges and battles
- Route: From Atienza to Calatayud
- Provinces: Soria, Guadalajara, Zaragoza
- Kilometres: Approx. 254 km.
- Days recommended: 4 days (3 nights).
Information you can download on this page
- The tracks on the route in GPX, KMZ and TRK format.
- List of accommodation.
- List of points for obtaining and stamping the Letter of safe conduct.
- List of tourist information offices.
- Tourist brochure (this can be obtained at any of the tourist information offices on the route).Only available in Spanish.
- Guides: castles and countryside of the Way of El Cid as he passed through the province of Zaragoza, published by the Provincial Council of Zaragoza.Only available in Spanish.
Remember that you can obtain more information about each route at the tourist information offices on the Way of El Cid, including brochures and the Letter of safe conduct.
Plot: raids, sieges and battles
Exiled by King Alphonse VI, El Cid abandoned Castile and entered the former Taifa of Toledo under the dark of night to avoid being discovered. This section begins in Atienza, an advanced Moorish post at the time and, according to the Poem, a 'very strong' crag. It continues towards El Henares, where those who were in exile, in need of food, took a fortified village identified as Castejón de Henares or possibly Jadraque. At the same time, Álvar Fáñez, El Cid's lieutenant, set off with 200 knights to pillage the valley; this attack is the plot of El Ramal de Álvar Fáñez. The route continues north-west through the desolate plateau of Layna, towards the Valley of El Jalón, along a route that is described in detail in the Poem of The Cid. The Moorish villages on the riverbank were dedicated to farming and forced to ensure the upkeep of El Cid's troops.
On the 16th day of exile, El Cid set up camp opposite the fortified town of Alcocer (today an archaeological site), very close to Ateca, and after a siege of more than three months, he succeeded in its conquest. In reprisal, an army from Valencia with 3000 horsemen took on El Cid and his men. The latter won one of the fiercest battles told in the Poem and the vanquished generals were chased off to Terrer and Calatayud. With this victory, El Cid's fame and wealth grew enough for him to be able to continue his journey to Valencia.
This section also includes part of the journeys made by Jimena, his daughters and followers on their journeys to Castile and Valencia; its epicentre is the border fortress of Medinaceli.
The journey: what you will find
Up until the disappearance of the caliphate at the beginning of the 11th century, Atienza, Guadalajara and Medinaceli were places of much importance in Andalusia: they were highly militarised and responsible for defending the border and ensuring supplies for the Andalusian troops, who launched their attacks from there on the areas colonised by the Christians. Between 1085 and 1104, they succumbed to the attacks by the kingdoms of León and Castile. However, set in huge areas with low population density occupied by thieves and armed bands of a wide variety of origins, they remained dangerous places.
At the beginning of the 12th century, Medinaceli separated the lands of Castile from the Taifa of Zaragoza, a brilliant Islamic court governed by the Hudi dynasty of Yemeni origin since 1036. The Hudi were hosts to El Cid on more than one occasion and remained independent from Zaragoza until they were conquered by the Almoravides in 1110. In 1120, the Aragonese King Alphonse I the Warrior took Calatayud and the basin of the River Jalón. However, the land kept its border character and was the scenario of conflict between the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile.
Evidence of this conflictive past can be found in the many castles, walls and watchtowers travellers will come across on this section. They date from very different periods and are in various states of repair. Of particular interest are the castles of Atienza, Jadraque, Pelegrina, Sigüenza, Medinaceli, Montuenga de Soria, Monreal de Ariza and, especially, at the end of the journey, Calatayud: one of the most important examples of Islamic walls in Spain. The route also passes through four towns declared historical and/or artistic sites that are well worth a stop-off: Atienza, Sigüenza, Medinaceli and Calatayud, as well as small, peaceful country villages (only 10 of the 52 villages on this route have more than 400 inhabitants) where it is easy to feel safe and sound. Interestingly, on this section, on the river plains of El Jalón in Zaragoza, you can see the early examples of the Aragonese Mudejar style, declared a World Heritage Site.
The route is characterised by the diversity of the land, starting in Serranía de Atienza at 1320 m above sea level and ending on the river plains of El Jalón in Calatayud at 536 m above sea level. In general, the route follows valleys formed by the Henares, Dulce, Tajuña and Jalón rivers, passing through spectacular sections with gorges and narrow valleys, which alternate with scrubland and crop fields. After Medinaceli, the countryside is more arid, typical borderland which, depending on the sections and time of the year, will make you think you are in a medieval Western: large plains that turn into a fertile river plain, that of the Jalón, and, finally, a near moonscape of hills of gypsum and clay in Calatayud. The route crosses five protected natural areas: the Gorge of the River Dulce (an impressive limestone gorge with numerous birds of prey); the High Moorlands of Maranchón and Layna (extensive countryside with a wide variety of steppe birdlife, including Dupont’s lark and the juniper forests and riverbanks of the Jalón.
The 'gastronomic route' starts in the northern mountains of Guadalajara, where you can enjoy roast lamb and kid (the most famous is the one of Jadraque). Traditional cuisine in Guadalajara and Soria ranges from garlic soup to Migas de Pastor, including seasonal dishes such as game and wild mushrooms. On the banks of the River Jalón, the Aragonese tradition and the proximity of the local farmland means that visitors can enjoy some of the area's fruit and vegetables. Here, gastronomy focuses on Calatayud, with typical dishes that include ternasco (young lamb), chickpeas with conger eel and fardeles. Wine from Calatayud, which was highly appreciated by the Roman poet Martial, has greatly evolved and some of the wineries included under this designation of origin make different wines that will surprise enthusiasts. You can complete your meals with typical sweets and deserts, such as yemas de Sigüenza, the tempting marinated sponge cakes from Guadalajara or frutas de Aragón, which are sweets made from crystallised fruit covered in chocolate, or you might prefer the main product from Guadalajara: honey, in any of its varieties and origins.
The roads are signposted at crossings and strategic places. For greater convenience, we recommend you take the cycling tourist route guides and the track.
Tips and recommendations
- Although they are not on the route, if you like art and history, we recommend visiting two places: (1) in Covarrubias you can go along a very attractive road to the Monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza (7 km), one of the foundational monasteries of Castile, located in a very unique area; and (2) from Berlanga de Duero you can go to the Mozarab Shrine of San Baudelio de Berlanga, 9 km away, a tiny church where you can see what remains of its original Mozarab paintings (most of them are in New York's Metropolitan Museum).
- Remember that the road you are on is also used by cyclists and you might come across a few of them on your journey. Respect them and take great care. Especially when overtaking: keep a safety distance of 1.5 m.
- Book your accommodation in advance. You are about to travel through one of the areas with the lowest population density in Europe. Some villages are very small and have limited infrastructures. Book your accommodation at the end of the stage in advance and if you change where you plan to finish the route, check that there is accommodation available there.
- Get your Letter of safe conduct. The Letter of Safe Conduct is a personalised 'passport' you can have stamped at many towns and villages on the Way of El Cid. You can use it to get discounts of at least 10% in more than 200 places of accommodation and benefit from special offers. It is free and you can apply for it at any of the more than 70 tourist information offices on the route or at the Way of El Cid Consortium.
- Your literary guide. You might think it's unnecessary weight, but for many it is essential: don't forget to take with you a copy of the Poem of The Cid; you will be able to recreate some of its passages on site. If your Old Spanish is not so good, take a modern version!
Rev. JGG 02.08.16